• New Caledonian crows identify the best plants for fashioning hunting hooks from among myriad shrubs in the forest undergrowth, researchers said on Wednesday.
• The birds use leaves and plant stems to create an array of utensils they then wield to forage for bugs in the ground or prise prey out of deadwood.
Knowing what they want
• Ms. Klump and the team from St. Andrews carried out a string of tests on the crows, using types of plant with near-identical leaves native to the Pacific archipelago.
• Previous studies showed that the crafty crows prefer a particular species of flowering plant, which has a robust but malleable stem that they fashion into hooks.
• In Ms. Klump’s study, published in the journal Royal Society Biology Letters, crows were shown their preferred plant next to a similar-looking one in the lab. They knew the difference and frequently opted to approach their preferred material.
• In a subsequent test, the leaves were removed from both plants and replaced with those of a third plant. But the crows weren’t fooled, once again plumping for their favourite shrub.
Focus on stems
• “The general idea we had is that they would look for the leaves because they are more conspicuous and maybe then they would look at the stems as a second step,” said Ms. Klump.
• “They did recognise the leaves, but this really showed us that the stem is the main thing they focus on. They are very picky.”
• The crows of New Caledonia a French territory around 1,500 km east of Australia have impressed ornithologists for decades with their ingenious use of tools.
• Ms. Klump said she had no qualms about labelling the birds smart.
Mains Paper 3: Science and Technology
Prelims level: tool-making stem