Mains Paper 3: Environment
Prelims level: Air Quality report
Mains level: Environment pollution and assessment
• An assessment of the quality of air across countries and in cities has come as a fresh warning to India on the levels of deadly pollutants its citizens are breathing.
• The IQ AirVisual 2018 World Air Quality Report published in collaboration with Greenpeace underscores that Delhi remains an extremely hazardous city to live in.
• The national capital exposes people to air containing annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of 113.5 micrograms per cubic metre, when it should be no more than 10 micrograms as per WHO guidelines.
Air pollution affecting Indian cities
• Gurugram, which borders Delhi, fares even worse with a PM2.5 level of 135.8 micrograms, while 15 of the 20 cities worldwide ranked the worst on air pollution metrics are in India.
• Delhi’s air quality has been making headlines for years now.
• Yet, measures to mitigate emissions have not moved into crisis mode: the launch this year of the National Clean Air Programme for 102 cities and towns, including the capital, talks only of long-term benefits of mitigation programmes beyond 2024, and not a dramatic reduction in near-term pollution.
Steps needed to be taken for improving air quality
• This has to change, and an annual target for reduction be set to make governments accountable.
• Achieving a reduction within a short window is not impossible if there is the political will to reform key sectors: transport, biomass and construction.
• The monitoring of air quality in real time across cities and towns in India is far from adequate or uniform.
• The evidence from Delhi, which is relatively more robust, has clear pointers to what needs to be done.
• The Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises learnt from a commissioned study last year that dusty sources such as roads, construction sites and bare soil added about 42% of the coarse particulate matter (PM10) in summer, while in winter it was a significant 31%.
• PM10 from transport varied between 15% and 18% across seasons.
• Yet, it is the even more unhealthy PM2.5 penetrating the lungs that causes greater worry.
• Vehicles contributed 18-23% of these particulates, while biomass burning was estimated to make up 15-22%, and dusty sources 34% during summer.
• These insights provide a road map for action. The Delhi government, which has done well to decide on inducting 1,000 electric buses, should speed up the plan and turn its entire fleet green.
• A transition to electric vehicles for all commercial applications, with funding from the Centre’s programme for adoption of EVs, should be a priority in cities.
• Cutting nitrogen and sulphur emissions from industrial processes needs a time-bound programme supervised by the Environment Ministry.
• These are priority measures to get urban India out of the red zone.
Q.1) Which of the following statements is/are correct about particulate pollutants?
1. They are present in vehicle emissions.
2. Their effect on human health is independent of the particle size.
3. They may be living organisms.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Q.1) How Indians are integral to the tackling of India’s hazardous air pollution?