[Editorial Analysis] Swachh Nigeria

Mains Paper 2: Governance

Prelims level: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Mains level: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation


• Nigeria is a country of great people with an estimated population of 191million as of 2018.

• Located in Sub-Saharan Africa, it is a large country with tremendous natural and human resources.

• However, Nigeria faces a critical challenge in its Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) sector.

• While it has made significant progress in national access to improved water supply from 40 per cent in 1990 to 69 per cent in 2015, there was a great decline in access to piped water on premises from 32 per cent in 1990 to 7 per cent in 2015 in urban areas.

Sanitation a revolution for both countries

• The national access to basic sanitation stands at a low level of 33 per cent, with an estimated 47 million persons practising open defecation, the second highest globally.

• During the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) era, the country made several efforts towards improving access to sanitation.

• A new programme, Partnership for Expanded Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (PEWASH) was developed in 2016 to improve the situation and bring sector actors together.

• Nigeria and India share similarities, which include a large population, decentralised government structure and WASH challenges.
• Both countries have been at the top of the global open defecation ladder.

• India’s on-going Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) Open Defecation Free by 2019.

• The success of the SBM is an inspiring model for Nigeria; Mahatma Gandhi International Sanitation Conference (MGISC), in October 2018.

• A mass movement, campaign at the national and sub-national level, a clear cut strategy for carrying this out.

Way forward

• Like India, Nigeria has been able to demonstrate a high-level political will for the WASH sector.

• In November 2018, President Muhammadu Buhari declared a state of emergency and launched a new National Action Plan for the sector.

• The plan has five components — governance, sustainability, sanitation, funding and financing and monitoring and evaluation.

• It proposes an 18-month emergency phase, five-year recovery phase and 13-year revitalisation strategy for the sector.

• It also proposes the establishment of a National WASH Fund to incentivize reform and infrastructure revitalisation.

• The cross-cutting nature of water and sanitation means that they directly and indirectly impact the achievement of the other SDGs.


Prelims Questions:

Q.1) Government of India implements the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) via

a) Anganwadi centres

b) Krishi Kiosks

c) Common Service Centres (CSCs)

d) Single Window Facilitation Centres (SWFCs)

Answer: A

Mains Questions:


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