[Editorial Analysis] The power of two: on simultaneous elections to the Assemblies and Lok Sabha

Mains Paper 2: Polity

Prelims level: Election process

Mains level: Simultaneous election procedure

Context

• Parliamentary elections in India have increasingly been influenced by State-level political variables beyond the performance of the ruling parties and the Opposition at the Centre.

• This factor is likely to be even more salient in the four States facing simultaneous elections to the Assemblies and the Lok Sabha: Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

• In Andhra Pradesh, the two main rivals are regional forces, the Chandrababu Naidu-led Telugu Desam Party and the Y.S. Jaganmohan Reddy-led YSR Congress Party.

• In 2014, the TDP had successfully fought elections in alliance with the BJP, and the Congress faced a backlash because of the bifurcation of the State during its tenure.

Political situation in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha

• This time TDP having broken its alliance with the BJP, the regional parties are in a direct contest, and the national parties relegated to being minor players.

• Andhra Pradesh has faced acute fiscal concerns after bifurcation, and the TDP government would be keen to reassure voters over concerns about the State’s economy.

• It fared the best in the country on economic growth parameters, with a significant increase in per capita income during the last five years and successful delivery of irrigation schemes.

• On the flip side, delays in the construction of the new capital city and the ballooning public debt suggest that Andhra still has structural issues to overcome.

• The TDP and the YSRCP have tried a game of one-upmanship on relations with the Centre and the denial of “special category status” for the State, which it is argued is crucial to overcome fiscal issues.

• Both parties have significant support bases among OBCs and other landowning communities, and the lack of any substantive differentiation between them could make this a closely contested election.

• The two parties are also likely to be important players in a post-election scenario at the national level.

• In Odisha, the Biju Janata Dal led by Naveen Patnaik has been in power for 19 years, having bucked anti-incumbency largely due to welfare-driven governance.

Way forward

• Unlike in Andhra Pradesh, the Congress and particularly the BJP have a stronger presence.

• The BJP, buoyed by its performance in the 2017 local body elections, is expected to put up a stronger fight in the State’s Assembly and Lok Sabha polls.

• The BJP is keen to make up for expected losses in its strongholds in the north with gains in the east.

• India’s longest-serving Chief Minister, Pawan Kumar Chamling (in power since 1994), and his Sikkim Democratic Front are expected to face a more pronounced challenge from the Sikkim Krantikari Morcha and the new party launched by former footballer Bhaichung Bhutia, the Hamro Sikkim Party.

• In Arunachal Pradesh, the Permanent Resident Certificate issue will figure as a dominant narrative during the elections even as the ruling BJP seeks to link its campaign to the performance of the Central government.

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Prelims Questions:

Q.1) Who among the following can join the Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana, recently launched by the Government of India?

(a) Person belongings to rural households.

(b) All the unemployed persons of age from 18 to 30.

(c) All the persons working under the MGNREGA.

(d) All insured persons covered under Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948.

Answer: D

Mains Questions:

Q.1) Discuss the pros and cons of simultaneous election process.

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