Mains Paper 3: Science and Technology
Prelims level: Digitization
Mains level: Awareness in the fields of IT and development process
• Early efforts at digitization were largely Government focused used especially in a department like income tax and statistics etc.
• Substantial efforts and progress were seen in departments that dealt beneficiaries like rural development, PDS etc. during 1976-1996.
• In 1997 the first steps to a citizen-focused e-governance program were taken, in Andhra Pradesh.
• Approval of SWAN (State Wide Area Networks) project led to discussion on national e-governance plan in 2003 which culminated in the approval of the plan and the game-changing common services center (CSCs) project in 2006, expanding to panchayats.
• During the period 2004-2013 some more ambitious projects like UID (Aadhar), passport seva, MCA 21(e-governance project under the Ministry of Corporate affairs) etc. were initiated.
• The country went from 100 to 1000 million telecom subscribers in a little over a decade.
• The national optical fibre network (NOFN) player known as Bharat Broadband was
• Meanwhile global development in technology led to the use of powerful, affordable technologies like social media, mobile data analytics, IoT, 3-D printing etc.
What is IoT?
• Internet of Things (IoT) is an ecosystem of connected physical objects that can be accessed through the internet.
• The computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, people are provided with unique identifiers to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to human or human-to-computer interaction.
• In India healthcare such as Medicea technology solutions is a technology-driven pharmaceutical distribution services that uses private blockchain.
• Artoo is an intelligent lending system used by Microenterprises.
• Dheeyantra enables interactions with end customers using Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Natural Language Processing (NLP).
• Krishi Hub is a free AI-powered mobile app that enables farmers to make data-driven decisions in around 17 states.
• Deepmind technologies analyses digital scans of eyes to diagnose eye disease.
• Some people have welcomed the recent drone policy while others feel it is still sub-optimal.
Drone policy 2018
• It has been announced by the Directorate General on civil use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems, commonly known as “Drones”.
• This New Drone Policy allows personal, recreational and commercial use of drones only within the “line of sight” of the person flying it.
• The policy will open the way for commercial use of drones (unmanned aircraft) for works in agriculture, health and disaster relief.
• Availability, power and affordability of technology are no longer the limitations.
• Technology has been solutions for poverty, employment, education and skilling, healthcare, agricultural productivity, financial inclusion etc