Mains Paper 2: Governance
Prelims level: Sarvodaya mission
Mains level: Gandhi’s 11 views
• Gandhi picked up the broomstick (Jhadoo) and involved one and all in cleaning up house, ashram, neighbourhood, street and toilets.
• When he gave the call to improve sanitation and hygiene, he also had a firm agenda of integrating the condemned communities with all as equals without bias, prejudice and contempt.
• Jhaadoo was not just a symbol of physical cleanliness alone. He established Jhadoo as a symbol of Antyodaya (means uplifting of the weakest section of the society) and Sarvodaya, (means development of all). He clearly led and advised on the journey of welfare from Antyodaya to Sarvodaya.
• In this manner Gandhi visualized to make Hindustan a Swachh nation where every citizen is clean and pure physically, socially and from the heart.
Sanitation and Hygiene in South Africa and India
• Gandhi had gone to South Africa for a job with a trading and business firm of Dada Abdulla.
• He learned that the white community publicly maintained that Indians lived in insanitary conditions and did not practice hygiene.
• He then addressed the state governments and the office of secretaries of the colonies in Africa and in India to raise the issue of neglect on part of the civic authorities.
• Back from South Africa, Gandhi travelled the length and breadth of India where he witnessed insanitation, lack of cleanliness, unhygienic environment, dirt and filth throughout the country.
• Similar was the situation in temples he visited and noted that people dirtied the roads and the fair banks of the Ganges.
• In educational institutions and public events such as conferences, Gandhi for the first time brought up the issue of sanitation and hygiene and the attending leaders had to volunteer in day to day cleaning activities.
• This then became a practice with the Congress sessions with or without Gandhi until after independence.
• Gandhi introduced personal hygiene, village and town sanitation as a constructive programme. Removal of untouchability was both a constructive programme and one of the eleven vows that each satyagrahi had to follow.
What are Gandhi’s 11 views?
• Brahmacharya-Self Discipline
• Sharirshrama-Bread Labor
• Aswada-Control of the Palate
• Sarvatra Bhayavarjana-Fearlessness
• Sarva Dharma Samantva-Equality of All Religions
• Swadeshi-Use Locally Made Goods
• Sparshbhavana-Remove Untouchability