[Gist of Yojana November ] Sanitation Revolution: Cleansing Urban India

Mains Paper 2: Governance

Prelims level: ODF

Mains level: Concepts of ODF system


• The most significant achievement in sanitation has been a paradigmatic shift in the way SBM (Urban) is being implemented.

• The focus is now on counting and sustaining Open Defecation Free (ODF) towns/ cities, rather than only counting toilets.

• When the mission was launched, no city or town in India was ODF. Today, urban areas of 19 States/UTs have become ODF.

• We have now introduced the SBM ODF+ and ODF++protocols.

• Parallelly, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has partnered with Google to upload and make available on Google maps all the public and community toilets in the cities so that citizens and visitors are able to easily locate these facilities in their vicinity.

• So far this has been completed for 550 cities/towns across the country.
• One important initiative to be launched under the SBM will be the Swachh Manch, a web-based platform which aims to bring together every stakeholder contributing to the Swachh Bharat Mission under a common platform.


• ODF: It states that all community members use sanitation facilities (such as toilets) instead of going to the open for defecation.

• ODF+: The SBM ODF+ protocol focuses on sustaining community/ public toilet usage by ensuring their functionality, cleanliness and maintenance.

• ODF++: The SBM ODF++ will focus on achieving sanitation sustainability by addressing complete sanitation value chain, including safe containment, processing and disposal of fecal sludge and seepage.

Components and targets of SBM Urban

• Eradication of open defecation in all towns statutory towns.

• 100% Scientific Solid Waste Management in all Statutory towns.

Implementation components

• Individual household toilets

• Community toilets/Public toilets

• Solid waste management

• Information, Education and Communication (IEC)

• Capacity Building (CS)

Summary of Achievements under SBM urban

• 19 states have become ODF in their urban areas

• 3,906 cities have been declared as ODF 51.49 Lakh IHHL constructed and 7.92 lakh under construction

• 4.06 lakh CT/PT seats built and 0.35 lakh seats under construction.

• 36.69% waste processed

• 44.4% urban wards have 100% segregation

Swachh Surveksban-a Tool for Mission Monitoring and Governance

• Under the SBM Urban, MoHUA has been conducting the Swachh Survekshan which is an annual survey to rank cities on various sanitation and cleanliness parameters.

Star Rating for Garbage Cities

• The Ministry awards the “Garbage Free City Stars” to the clean cities.

• The Star Rating initiative, is a rating protocol based on 12 parameters, follows a SMART framework – Single metric, Measurable, Achievable, Rigorous verification mechanism and Targeted towards outcomes covering all aspects
of Solid Waste Management viz. Public Cleanliness, Door to Door collection, source segregation, processing, cleanliness of drains and water bodies, plastic waste management, managing construction and demolition waste, etc., which are critical drivers for achieving garbage free cities.

Moving towards a ‘Jan Andolan’ (Mass Movement) with:

• Engaging students and self-help groups to be agents of social behaviour change.

• Running multi-media communication campaigns with messages of ‘swachhata ‘

• ‘Swachhata selfie’ series on radio captures best practices in sanitation and solid waste management form across the country.

• Nowhere has this feeling of ‘jan andolan’ been demonstrated more than in the overwhelming participation by nearly 40 lakh citizens, comprising school children. Students, home makers, resident welfare associations (RWAs), religious leaders, corporate houses and local business people and celebrities as ambassadors.

• 25,000 events in Urban India was witnessed during the ‘swachhata hi seva ‘ fortnight run across the country as a run-up to the 2nd October celebrations this year.

The Loo Review campaign

• The campaign will involve and engage Local Guides in India to rate and review public toilets on Google Maps, and use the hashtag #LooReview for the chance to be featured on Google Local Guides’ social channels.

• Anyone can join the Local Guides community and review places on Google Maps.

• To find a place to visit and review, search “Public toilet near me” on Google Maps.

Way forward

• At MOHUA, missions such as Atal Mission for rejuvenation and urban transformation (AMRUT) addresses the issue of waste water and fecal sludge management along with the smart cities mission (SCM) which has solid waste management as one of its development parameters.

• The interventions from the National Green Tribunal (NGT) will combine to further consolidate and accelerate our progress.

• A Swachh environment will lead to a ‘Swasth, Swastha, Samarth and Samriddh Bharat and pave a way for new India-2022.

Share article