[Gist of Yojana November] Swachhata: Juggernaut of Change

Mains Paper 2: Governance

Prelims level: BS VI

Mains level: Various fuel emission standards

Context

• Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoP and NG) and Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MoSD and E), are wholeheartedly committed towards fulfilling the objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.

• The MoP and NG allocated the 4th highest budget among all Government of India (Gol) ministries.

• The Oil &Gas Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) and their JointVentures (N), have not only undertaken core business offerings and Corporate Social Responsibility to build infrastructure that supports sanitation, but also participated in this social movement towards SBM.

• Petrol pumps of nationalized Oil Marketing Companies (OMC) form one of the densest retail networks in the country where countless Indians fuel their vehicles and so, a mission-mode plan to provide clean toilets, clean drinking water and waste disposal facilities across all OMC petrol pumps was launched under SBM.

• As of September 2018, separate toilets for men and women are available in nearly 90 % of the feasible petrol pumps on National Highways and State Highways.

• The Swachhata@ petrol pump app leverages technology putting consumers at the forefront to monitor report and ensure cleanliness of the toilets at outlets across India on real time basis.

• In line with India’s climate change commitments at COP21 in Paris, the Central Government followed the pathway for fuel quality and vehicle emissions standards termed as Bharat Stage (BS) and successfully implemented BS IV norms at petrol pumps all across the country.

• Further the Government has taken a bold decision to leapfrog from BS IV to BS VI fuel norms directly. BS VI standard fuel is significantly less polluting than BS IV.

• The landmark National Policy on Biofuels in 2018 Plans to set up twelve 2nd generation bio-refineries which will be capable of generating bio-ethanol from agricultural residue.

• So far we have already achieved 4% ethanol blending in petrol leading to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and FOREX savings of $1520 million from fuel imports.

Bharat Stage emission standards

• Bharat stage emission standards (BSES) are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engines and Spark-ignition engines equipment, including motor vehicles.

• It is implemented by the Central Pollution Control Board under the Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate change.

• These norms were introduced in India in 2000, based on the European emission norms.

• Each stage specifies a certain limit on the pollutants released.

• India introduced its first emission standards in 1991 equivalent to EURO I (called BS I) has been implemented in 2000.

• In 2003, BS II was adopted nationwide by 2005.

• First National Auto Fuel Policy was adopted in 2003 on recommendation of Mashelkar committee (2002). It was implemented in 2005 and BS III was introduced in entire nation by 2010.

• We have BS-III and BS-IV norms in India under the Euro 6 norms.

• In 2012 Saumitra Committee was formed to draft Auto Fuel Policy 2025 to cover the entire country with Euro IV or BS IV emission standards by 2014.

Way forward

• At present Euro IV is applicable in 13 major cities only and Euro III in rest of the nation.

• Further Saumitra committee recommended implementing BS V and BS VI in entire nation by 2022 and 2024, respectively.

• Recently government decided to skip Euro V and jump to Euro VI (BS VI) standards by 1 April 2020.

• The BS-IV compliant fuels have sulphur concentration of 50 parts per million (ppm) which will come down to as low as 10 ppm in BS-VI compliant fuels and auto engines thereby ensuring a lower level ofharmful emissions.

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