Mains Paper 3: Science and Technology
Prelims level: Technology empowerment
Mains level: Awareness in the fields of IT
• Today India is recognized in the world for its thriving IT industry.
• Growth in IT industry in India can be divided into 3 phases:
• Phase 1: Indian IT professionals and companies travelled different parts of the world and established their presence.
• Phase 2: Global IT giants started investing in India and tapped its vast domestic market.
• Phase 3: This is the current phase where India is witnessing great growth in entrepreneurship led by start-ups.
Transformative impact of digital India
1. Digital identity
• To provide a unique digital identity Aadhar has covered around 122 crore residents of the country supplementing the physical identity of the individuals.
2. Digital infrastructure
• Bharat net aims to provide high-speed internet in rural areas of India by building optical fibre network connecting all the 2.50 lakh Gram panchayats of India.
• National knowledge network NKN is a state of the art network to promote collaboration and exchange of knowledge among educational and research Institutions.
• GI cloud (Meghraj) To utilize the benefits of cloud computing, this initiative aims to accelerate delivery of e-services in the country while optimizing ICT spending of the Government.
• eSign: Electronic signature service is an innovative initiative for allowing easy, efficient and secure signing of electronic documents by authenticating signer using e-KYC(know your customer) services.
3. Digital payments
• BHIM-UPI: Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) is a mobile app developed by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), based on the Unified Payment Interface (UPI) to facilitate e-payments directly through banks and drive towards cashless transactions.
• RuPay debit cards: RuPay is an Indian domestic card scheme conceived and launched by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI). RuPay facilitates electronic payment at all Indian banks and financial institutions.
4. Digital delivery of services
• UMANG is a single mobile app that offers more than 307 Government services.
• National scholarship portal: It has become a one-stop shop for all the scholarships needs of students.
• e-hospital and online registration services: It aims to ensure that patients can get easy access to doctors.
• Soil health card: National soil health card scheme was launched in 2015 to provide information on soil health digitally.
• eNAM: Electronic national agricultural market (eNAM) is a pan -India electronic trading portal which networks the existing agricultural produce marketing committee (APMC) Mandi to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.
• Digi locker: Various important documents like PAN card, driving licence, Aadhar card etc can be stored in digital form on digilocker.
• eVisa: It involves a complete online application for which no facilitation is required by any agents .E-tourist Visa has been introduced for tourists coming from 163 countries at 24 airports and at 5 seaports.
• eCourts: With eCourts mobile app and Portal it has become easy to keep a track of case status of cases going on in different courts across India. Lawyers and litigants can also available notification services about their cases.
• National judicial data Grid: It provides information on cases pending, cases disposed of, and cases filed in both high court and the district court in the areas of civil and criminal cases.
• GeM: Government e-marketplace (GeM) is a transparent online marketplace for
Government procurements and also created opportunities for micro, small, and medium enterprises to sell their products.
5. Digital India for employment, entrepreneurship and empowerment
• Common services centres have undertaken Stree Swabhiman(women’s self-respect) initiative to create awareness about menstrual health and hygiene among rural woman under which more than 300 micro sanitary pads manufacturing units have been opened in rural areas.
6. Digital literacy for the masses: Two schemes namely National Digital Literacy Mission (NDLM) and DISHA and Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA) strive to make one person e-literate in every household.
• BPO promotion in small towns: India BPO promotion scheme and northeast BPO promotion scheme has been launched under digital India Programme.
7. Digital India for make in India: There are about 35 manufacturing units of LCD/LED TVs and 128 units of LED products in the country under electronics manufacturing cluster (EMC) scheme.
8. Digital Initiatives in emerging technologies: Centres of excellence (CoE) are being set up in the areas of internet of things (IoE), internal security, large area flexible electronics, intellectual property rights, medical tech, health informatics, gaming and animation and biometrics.
9. Cybersecurity: Cyber Swachhata Kendra (Botnet clearing and malware analysis centre) has been set up to provide alerts to users for preventing losses of financial and other data.
• National cyber coordination centre has been made operational in 2017.
• India is today among the top three economics of digital consumers.
• Concerted efforts permeating the economy have the potential to create a trillion-dollar digital economy by 2025