• The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has flagged the growing practice of monoculture cultivation of a single crop at a given area in food production around the world.
• Of more than 6,000 plant species cultivated for food production, fewer than 200 contribute significantly to food production globally, regionally or nationally.
• In according to FAO’s latest report The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture 2019.
Key change affecting biodiversity for food and agriculture:
• Population growth and urbanization
• Over-exploitation and over-harvesting
• Changes in land and water use and management
• Pests, diseases and invasive alien species
• Climate change
• Pollution and external inputs
• Natural disasters
• Markets, trade and the private sector
About monoculture factor
• The first factor contributor majorly towards monoculture as people move to cities they tend to depend more on purchased foods, citing the example of Ecuador.
• “They often also tend to lose ties with rural areas and rural foods, and increasingly opt for processed foods rather than fresh foods. Markets may also impose requirements,” the report said.
• This pressures producers to “continuously grow or keep only a limited range of species, breeds and varieties of crops, livestock, trees, fish, etc.”
• Individual holdings as well as wider productive landscapes become more homogeneous in terms of their genetics and physical structure, the report added.
• Such changes often affect the resilience of production systems and their role in biodiversity. Private food standards adopted by supermarkets and consumers have pushed farmers towards particular varieties and management procedures.
The diverse the better
• “If a single variety is widely grown, a pest or disease to which it lacks resistance can lead to a dramatic fall in production. If livelihoods are heavily dependent on the species in question, the effects can be disastrous,” the report warns.
• The 1840 potato blight famine in Ireland
• The 20th century losses in cereals in the United States
• Losses of taro production in Samoa in the 1990s
• Diversifying crop cultivation, on the other hand, reduces risk of economic shocks: “Integrating intercrops, hedgerows or cover crops, particularly legumes, into a system can reduce drought stress by helping to conserve water in the soil profile and help to replenish depleted soil fertility.”
• Also, “crop diversification, including rotation and intercropping and the use of diverse forage plants in pastureland, can reduce pest damage and weed invasions.”
• The growing exploitation of land and water sources was eating in to integrated aquaculture, which in turn was pushing farmers towards monoculture, the report said.
Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints
Prelims level: FAO report on Monoculture
Mains level: Monoculture: utility and impact on ecosystem