• Malaria is caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans.
• 2 species- Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax- pose the greatest threat.
• According to the report Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (used as standard treatment drug) had been reported from all WHO regions, including India.
• Study mentioned high AMDR in Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.
• Major reasons for resistance include imperfect coverage of antimalarial drugs, improper diagnosis, misuse of drugs and not-so-good mosquito control programmes.
• Report was released as part of the ongoing World Antimicrobial Awareness week (18 -24 November).
• Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites resist the effects of medications, making common infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death.
• Antimicrobials are used to fight diseases in humans, animals and plants and include antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic medicines.
• WHO has declared AMR as one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity.
Steps taken to tackle AMR in India:
• National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance 2017-2021.
• National Policy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance 2011.
• Separate Schedule H-1 incorporated in Drug and Cosmetic rules to regulate the sale of antimicrobials.
• Food Safety and Standards Authority of India banned use of antibiotics and several pharmacologically active substances in fisheries.
• Launched Red Line campaign on Antibiotics in 2016.
Mains Paper 3: Science and Tech
Prelims level: Antimicrobial resistance
Mains level: Steps taken to tackle AMR in India