[AspirantWorld Explained] India elected non-permanent member of United Nations Security Council

• India was elected un-opposed to the non-permanent seat of the powerful UN Security Council for a two-year term on Wednesday.
• Along with India, Ireland, Mexico and Norway also won the Security Council elections held Wednesday.
• India will sit in the powerful UN body from January 1, 2021 along with non-permanent members Niger, Saint Vincent, Estonia, and the Grenadines, Vietnam and Tunisia.
• The two-year terms of Belgium, Dominican Republic, Germany, Indonesia, and South Africa are ending this year.
• There were 192 Member States present for voting and the 2/3 required majority was 128. India got 184 votes in the 193-member General Assembly.

What is UN Security Council?

• Formed in 1945 after the WWII, The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
• It was formed to address the failings of the League of the Nations in maintaining peace.
• It has 192 member states among them 5 are permanent member are 10 are non-permanent member.
• UNSC has been bestowed upon with a huge responsibility of ensuring international peace and security, recommending the admission of new UN members to the General Assembly, and approving any changes to the UN Charter.
• Its powers include establishing peacekeeping operations, enacting international sanctions, and authorizing military action. The UNSC is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions on member states.

What is Permanent membership in UNSC?

• The US, Russia, United Kingdom, China and France are the five permanent members of the UN Security Council.
• The Security Council’s five permanent members, have the power to veto any substantive resolution; this allows a permanent member to block adoption of a resolution, but not to prevent or end debate.
• Under Article 27 of the UN Charter, Security Council decisions on all substantive matters require the affirmative votes of three-fifths (i.e. nine) of the members.
• A negative vote or “veto” by a permanent member prevents adoption of a proposal, even if it has received the required votes.

What is non-permanent membership in UNSC?

• Along with the five permanent members, the Security Council of the United Nations has temporary members that hold their seats on a rotating basis by geographic region. Non-permanent members may be involved in global security briefings.
• These ten non-permanent members are elected by the United Nations General Assembly for two-year terms starting on 1 January, with five replaced each year.
• To be approved, a candidate must receive at least two-thirds of all votes cast for that seat, which can result in deadlock if there are two roughly evenly matched candidates.
• A retiring member is not eligible for immediate re-election.

What is the role of the president in UNSC?

• The role of president of the Security Council involves setting the agenda, presiding at its meetings and overseeing any crisis.
• The president is authorized to issue both Presidential Statements (subject to consensus among Council members) and notes, which are used to make declarations of intent that the full Security Council can then pursue.
• The presidency of the Council is held by each of the members in turn for one month, following the English alphabetical order of the Member States names.

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