Mains Paper 1: Society
Prelims level: National Database on Sexual Offenders
Mains level: Role of women and women’s organization, Social empowerment.
• Violence against women’s Unnao, Hathras and now Badaun continues as news of another horrific alleged rape and murder emerged from Uttar Pradesh recently.
• The equal rights movement means nothing if women are stopped from going out whenever they want to or need to, day or night.
• It is also imperative that with society steeped in gender prejudices, the government, police and family must step up to provide a safe environment.
Reports crime against woman in India:
• As per World Health Organization (WHO) findings about 1 in 3 (35%) women worldwide have experienced either physical or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime.
• The NCRB data show 88 rape cases were recorded every day in India with U.P. reporting the second-highest number at 3,065 cases.
• Globally, 38% of murders of women are committed by a male intimate partner
• Violence can negatively affect women’s physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health, Domestic Violence, and may increase the risk of acquiring HIV in some settings.
Causes of violence:
• Domestic violence often happens in India as a result of dowry demands.
• The patriarchal household structure in India.
• Feminization of Migration
• Poorly lit urban spaces coupled with inadequate police patrolling are favourable for increased sexual violence.
• Lack of stringent laws for punishing sexual assault is compounded by inefficient criminal justice system.
• Increasing objectification of women by media as an object for sexual satisfaction.
• Inefficient and apathetic attitude of law enforcement agencies.
• Physical and psychological deterioration,
• Gender Disparity is one of the deep-rooted cause,
• Traditional and cultural practices, Killing in the name of family honour.
• Health Issue affects their self-esteem, ability to work and make decisions about fertility.
• Economic Issue serious impact on economy of the household as well as of the nation.
• Loss of income, productivity, healthcare and cost of social services.
• Impact on child wellbeing, female and child mortality, intergenerational social and psychological cost.
• Rights Issue realization of fundamental rights under article 14, 21, 19 and 32 of the Indian constitution.
Laws and safeguards for women against sexual crimes:
• Section 354 of the IPC criminalises any act by a person that assaults or us es criminal force against a woman
• Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 To ensure women’s safety at workplace, this Act seeks to protect them from sexual harassment at their place of work. 36 % of Indian companies and 25% among MNC’s are not complaint with the Sexual Harassment Act according to a FICCI report.
• National Database on Sexual Offenders (NDSO): The government in 2018 launched the National Database on Sexual Offenders (NDSO). The database contains entries of offenders convicted under charges of rape, gang rape, POCSO and eve teasing It’s managed by the National Crime Records Bureau.
• Fast track courts:As a result of the 2012 Delhi gang rape case, the Indian government implemented a fast-track court system to rapidly prosecute rape cases.
• Education programmes: In 2017, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare unveiled resource material relating to health issues to be used as a part of a nationwide adolescent peer-education plan called Saathiya. Among other subjects, the material discusses relationships and consent.
• The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act: The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012 was enacted to provide a robust legal framework for the protection of children from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography. The framing of the Act seeks to put children first by making it easy to use by including mechanisms for child-friendly reporting.
• Gender based legislation and Financial Independence. Developing and resourcing national plans and policies to address violence against women.
• Improve system of collecting crime surveillance data on violence against women.
• Capacity building and training, Male Mediated Initiatives and Prevent recurrence of violence
• through early identification of women and children who are experiencing violence and providing appropriate referral and support.
• Promote egalitarian gender and Gender based surveys, including violence against women in population-based demographic and health surveys, as well as in surveillance and health information systems.
Q.1) With reference to the e-HRMS (Electronic-Human Resource Management System), consider the following statements:
1. e-HRMS was launched by Ministry of Education.
2. It is a standard ICT solution for the Government sector, addressing maximum requirements of State Governments related to personnel management.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2