Mains Paper 2: International Relations
Prelims level: The Intra-Afghan talks
Mains level: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests
• There was no shortage of irony when the Taliban and the Afghan delegation took their place at the table for the “intra-Afghan talks” in a palatial setting in Doha, Qatar on September 12.
• It was a coincidence that the talks began a day after the 19th anniversary of 9/11, the day of the attack on the Twin Towers in New York that shook the world, and ended Taliban rule in Afghanistan.
• The US is now hurrying to end that war with a forced marriage between two incompatibles- a western-style presidential Islamic democracy backed by the international community, and medieval fundamentalist Islamist militants.
• President Donald Trump wants to take home most American troops in Afghanistan just before the presidential elections.
• After two decades, the Taliban see themselves as having won this war.
• The Taliban delegation at the talks calls itself the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, the name of its 1996-2001 government.
• It does not recognise the Afghan government, whose negotiators are referred to as the Islamic Republic delegation.
• In any case, the Taliban delegation seems more government-like than the government’s, whose composition reflects the pulls
and pressures on President Ashraf Ghani.
• The government delegation has said it wants a ceasefire first, but the Taliban would hardly want to surrender their most powerful card at the get-go.
• Just in the first week of September, Taliban fighters were busy making forays into territory that is not under their control, for instance in the Panjshir province in the north.
• With all these elements swirling in the mix, the uncertainties ahead are unfortunately easier to foresee than any outcome that can herald real peace.
• India, which has a long relationship with Afghanistan and its people, has been an onlooker in the process.
• The reason is that Pakistan, its ability to deliver the Taliban to the talks table, was more valuable to the US than anything India, with its suspicion of Taliban as a proxy of the Pakistan Army and ISI, could offer.
• India has so far said it will not engage with the Taliban until they enter the political mainstream.
• But with his virtual participation in the opening ceremony of the talks, and his remarks reiterating Delhi’s backing for an “Afghan-owned, Afghan-led” settlement, External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar has sought to signal that India remains an important regional player.
• But at the moment Delhi has little choice but to wait and watch, see how far the process goes, and how it might reshape the region.
• Uncertainties ahead are unfortunately easier to foresee than any outcome that can herald real peace in Afghanistan.
Q.1) With reference to the International Day of Clean Air for blue skies, consider the following statements:
1. The very first International Day of Clean Air for blue skies will be held on September 10th, 2020.
2. It aims to raise public awareness at all levels—individual, community, corporate and government—that clean air is important for health, productivity, the economy and the environment.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Q.1) Describe the US-Taliban agreement. Discuss their relevance and implications on India.