Mains Paper 2: International Relations
Prelims level: G-7
Mains level: Important global groupings and their mandate
• The Cornwall summit of the G-7 hosted by the UK promises to be a definitive moment in the political evolution of the west
• Also, the summit which will see Indian PM’s digital participation also marks a vital step towards a new global compact between India and the West.
What is Group of 7 or G-7?
• The Group of Seven (G7) is an informal club of wealthy democracies consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
• The heads of government of the member states, as well as the representatives of the European Union, meet at the annual G7 Summit.
• The G7 represents 58% of the global net wealth and more than 46% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) based on nominal values, and more than 32% of the global GDP based on purchasing power parity.
What is Biden’s strategy?
• In his 1st abroad tour, Biden wants to reverse the global perception of a flailing West.
• To demonstrate that the collective West is an enduring force to reckon with under American leadership, he declared that “America is back”.
• In his tour, Biden to confer with the leaders of NATO and join a summit of the US and European Union.
• In calling for the normalization of relations with Russia, Biden seems to take a fresh look at Washington’s fraught relationship with Moscow.
India-US in this scenario:
• While Trump’s policies weakened the West, Biden is determined to strengthen US alliances and draw India into a new global architecture.
• The following factors have generated an unprecedented convergence between India and the West:
• Challenges from an increasingly aggressive China,
• Urgent mitigation of climate change,
• Construction of a post-pandemic international order.
• Biden’s quick elevation of the Quad to the summit level was about defining a new agenda for the Indo-Pacific region.
UK Johnson’s View:
• The behind PM Johnson’s invitation to India, South Africa and South Korea to join the G-7 summit is that
• He wants to build a coalition of leading democracies that is based more broadly than the geographic West
• to help fight and build back better from the pandemic impact.
• Create a greener and more prosperous future.
• India is at the centre of that Western calculus.
India and G-7:
• India is not participating for the 1st time in G-7, but for India too the Cornwall summit comes amidst intensifying strategic cooperation with the West that include
• Strong bilateral strategic cooperation with the US, France, UK and the Quad.
• The trilateral partnerships with France and Australia as well as Japan and Australia.
• It also stepped up engagement with the EU.
The China Factor behind the increasing intensity of India’s engagement with the West:
• The continuous deterioration of the relationship with China on the background of frequent military crises have compelled India to reevaluate its threats perceptions,
• Besides the above threat, India realized that strong global cooperation with China wouldn’t be possible,
• At the end of the Cold war, India saw China as a natural partner in the construction of a multipolar world to limit the dangers of a US-dominated unipolar world.
• But today, China is the greatest obstacle to India’s global aspirations where
• It is the only great power that voted against India’s permanent membership in the UNSC and blocked its NSG membership.
• China today rakes up the Kashmir question the UN to create hinders for India.
• On the trade front too, there is a growing imbalance with China and the negative impact of Chinese imports on India’s domestic manufacturing resulted in India walking away from China-dominated RCEP.
• India not only reluctant to integrate with the China-led Asian economic order but it is also turning to the west for trade agreements.
• India is eager to emerge as a critical node in future supply chains oriented to the democratic world.
Moscow in the middle:
• At a time when China’s problem for India became acute, Russia has moved closer to China but India don’t want to abandon its longstanding ties with Russia.
• However, the above approach came under stress when Russia-US ties deteriorated quickly.
• But with a renewed dialogue between the US and Moscow, India hopes for a relaxation of tensions between them that will ease India’s navigation among the great powers.
• The growing convergence of India’s and West’s interests does not mean everything is on good terms. The following are some divergent areas:
• The economic role of the state
• Democratic regulation of the social media and the technology giants.
• Though it is not easy to translate the broad convergence between both into tangible cooperation.
• But with sustained negotiations, the shared interests can be converted into concrete outcomes.
• All these years, India has default political orientation is looking east and mobilizing the south.
• But with changing times, India while continues to strengthen its partnership in Asia and the global south, a more productive partnership with the West helps India to secure its growing national interests and adds new depth to its international relations.
Q.1) With reference to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth, consider the following statements:
1. India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contracted by 7.3% in 2020-21, as per provisional National Income estimates released by the National Statistical Office.
2. Only two sectors bucked the trend of negative GVA growth are agriculture, forestry and fishing, which rose 3.6%, and electricity, gas, water supply and other utility services (up 1.9%).
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Q.1) “What introduces friction into the ties between India and the United States is that Washington is still unable to find for India a position in its global strategy, which would satisfy India’s National self-esteem and ambitions” Explain with suitable examples.