Mains Paper 2: National
Prelims level: SBM Phase II
Mains level: Objectives and guidelines of the SBM Phase II
• In June 2019, the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation decided to make an iconic swachhata anthem. Inspiration was the classic of 1980s on unity and integrity, the iconic Mile Sur Mera Tumhara and several sittings were held with the lyricist Swanand Kirkere to get the message right.
• Sanitation by nature is a continuous work. The day we stop cleaning our streets they become dirty again. Further, as Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) in its first phase devoted itself in making India open defecation free (ODF), there was still a lot to be done for effective solid and liquid waste management etc.
• The success of the programme is attributed to the 4 Ps – political leadership, public financing, partnerships and public participation. With the Prime Minister leading from the front, SBM in true sense became a people’s movement, of such a magnitude that few could have imagined.
Objectives of the SBM Phase II
• To declare a village ODF Plus following checklist Is provided in the guidelines:
• All households to have access to a functional toilet facility.
• All schools, Anganwadi centres and Panchayat Ghars have access to a functional toilet, with separate toilets for female and male.
• Public places to be visually clean.
• At least 80 percent households and all public Institutions have arrangements for managing biodegradable solid and liquid waste.
• The village has a plastic segregation and collection system.
• At least five ODF Plus IEC wall paintings per villages on five key themes of ODF sustainability, hand washing with soap, biodegradable waste management through compost pits, grey water management through soak pits and plastic waste management.
Guiding Principles for Implementation of SBM Phase II
• Phase II of the Swachh Bharat Mission is more complex and challenging. Therefore, few guiding principles have been laid down for ease of implementation and to achieve the desired goal in the given time frame. These principles may be summarised as:
• Ensuring that no one is left behind: If there are any new eligible households coming up during Phase II or any eligible household which may have been left out so far, such household may be provided incentive to built toilets after identification by the GP/ District. There is also provision for need based community sanitary complexes.
• Promotion of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle to reduce the generation of waste at source.
• Utilisation of Existing SLWM infrastructure wherever possible by rejuvenating, upgrading and putting them in use.
• Community assets for SLWM to be prioritised and financed: To ensure that every household in the village has access to solid and liquid waste management (SLWM), as far as possible, creation of community assets for SLWM will be prioritised and funded.
• Operation and maintenance to be an obligatory component of planning.
• Encouragement of technologies with low operation and maintenance costs.
• States will have the flexibility in deciding appropriate implementation mechanism and to choose technologies best suited to their conditions.
• Clustering of villages for maximum economic efficiency: Wherever necessary and possible, villages from different GPs can be clustered under a single project based on relevant criteria.
• Convergence with other schemes: The programme is designed for convergent action and the co-financing of assets and services. For example, Finance Commission funds for co-financing of assets; Jal Jeevan Mission for grey water management; MGNREGS for dovetailing of funds and functionaries; and Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship for skill development of field functionaries etc.
• Creating self-sustainable revenue models/business models by encouraging private sector to leverage its expertise and resources for meeting the growing demand of SLWM. States should promote interventions that are based on remunerative models and on principles of cost sharing, cost recovery and revenue generation.
• Priority to villages on the bank of Ganga and other water bodies for implementation of SLWM interventions.
• Inaugurating the Rashtriya Swachhata Kendra on 8th August, 2020, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi presented the way forward, “Cleanliness campaign is a journey, which will go on continuously. After getting rid of open defecation, the responsibility has increased now. After ODF, the country is now working on the goal of ODF plus. Now we have to improve the management of waste, be it in a city or a village. We have to speed up the work of making wealth out of waste.”
• Inspired by the vision of the Prime Minister, the Swachh Bharat Mission in its second phase is committed to achieve Sampoorna Swachhata by transforming the Mission into a Jan andolan. It has to generate a bigger momentum than it did in Phase I and that’s a great challenge.
• However, as it was in phase I, the Mission has the goodwill and support of 130 crore Indians, and it has the will, capacity, dedication, experience and energy to make it possible under the charismatic leadership of the Prime Minister.