• Green hydrogen is a clean burning fuel that eliminates emissions by using renewable energy (such as wind, solar or hydro) to electrolyse water, separating the hydrogen atom within it from oxygen.
• Hydrogen derived using fossil fuels is called gray hydrogen. Blue hydrogen is made in the same way, but carbon capture technologies prevent CO2 being released.
• Advantages of Hydrogen over conventional fuels: abundance, high energy density, ease of transportation over long distance, better combustion characteristics, non-polluting nature etc.
Significance for India:
• Reducing dependence on oil imports.
• It will help in resolving electricity transmission and evacuation related problems for green energy projects.
• Decarbonise a range of sectors including transport, iron and steel etc.
• Reducing emissions, improving air quality and strengthen energy security.
• Application includes: Fuel cell vehicle, H2 Hybrid vehicles, power generation, chemical industries, Fertilizer industries, refineries etc.
• Hydrogen production is energy intensive,
• hard to store and transport,
• lack of code and standards etc.
Mains Paper 3: Environment
Prelims level: Green hydrogen plants
Mains level: Significance and challenges for India to establishing green hydrogen plants