• On July 11, commemoration services were held at the Srebrenica-Potocari Memorial and Cemetery in remembrance of the victims of the Srebrenica massacre.
• During this ceremony, bodies of nine victims that were recently identified were buried in the cemetery.
• The disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1991 threw the southeastern and central Europe in chaos and led to violent inter-ethnic wars in the region over the next few years.
• In many ways, the violence perpetrated against Bosniaks or Bosnian Muslims in Srebrenica, a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina in southeastern Europe was a result of this regional conflict.
• The Bosnian War began in 1992, witnessed a period of displacement and ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Croats by the Bosnian Serb army and paramilitary forces.
• Bosnian Serb forces targeted Srebrenica in a campaign to seize control of a block of territory in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
• The Bosnian Serb military command formally ordered the operation, code-named Krivaja 95, that culminated in the massacre.
• The Srebrenica massacre started in 1995 when Commander Ratko Mladić occupied the town of Srebrenica. Thousands of Bosnian Muslim families sought refuge with the Dutch battalion under the United Nations forces that had been deployed following the upheaval during the Bosnia War.
• This zone later fell under the control of the Bosnian Serb forces after the Dutch forces surrendered.
• Approximately 8,000 Bosniaks, mostly men and boys were killed in Srebrenica and these killings were later classified as genocide by international tribunals investigating the massacre.
• The massacre also saw widespread crimes against women, where girls and women were subjected to violence and rape.
• 25 years after the massacre, bodies of victims continue to be found in mass graves.
Mains Paper 1: History
Prelims level: Srebrenica massacre