• UNFPA recently released the State of the World Population 2020 report.
• The Report focuses on the three harmful practices against women: (1) Child Marriage, (2) Son Preference and Gender Biased Sex Selection (GBSS), and (3) Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).
Son Preference and Gender Biased Sex Selection (GBSS):
• One in three girls missing globally due to sex selection, both pre- and post-natal, is from India — 46 million out of the total 142 million.
• India has the highest rate of excess female deaths at 13.5 per 1,000 female births or one in nine deaths of females below the age of 5 due to postnatal sex selection. Excess female mortality is the difference between observed and expected mortality of the girl child or avoidable death of girls during childhood.
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM):
• 200 million women and girls alive today are affected by FGM.
• Health-care providers are increasingly involved in performing “medicalized” FGM, but even that is harmful.
• Child marriages are almost universally banned, yet they happen 33,000 times a day, every day, all around the world.
• Child marriages are often transactional, with girls married off to a spouse to offload a burden or secure the promise of her care.
• The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is the United Nations sexual and reproductive health agency.
• The organization was created in 1969, the same year the United Nations General Assembly declared “parents have the exclusive right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children.”
• It is Headquartered in New York City, United States.
• It is under the authority of the United Nations General Assembly.
Mains Paper 2: International
Prelims level: UNFPA report
Mains level: Key findings of the report