• Survey shows deterioration in access to higher education between 2014 and 2018.
Key Findings related to higher education:
• Overall, as of 2018-19, 37.4 million students are part of the higher education
system of which 18.2 million are female.
• Dropout rate was around 5% (2014-2018) for graduates.
Reasons for dropout:
• 12% of girls drop out to get married, another 32% for “domestic activity”. For boys, more than a third drops out to earn.
• Financial limitation is the prime mover for dropout as at graduate level nine out of 10 students end up paying for education.
• Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) at graduate level is as low as 26% against nearly 100% at the primary level.
• Other issues faced by higher education sector: Low employability of graduates, poor quality of teaching, weak governance, insufficient funding, and complex regulatory norms.
• Presently, there is a need to enhance government spending on education.
• New National Education Policy intends to raise education spending in the country to 6% of GDP.
• India currently spends 3.8% of GDP on education, against the global average of 4.5%, says World Bank.
Mains Paper 2: National
Prelims level: Dropout rate
Mains level: Key findings related to higher education